29th COP of the Conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: progressive and continuous integration of the Ocean


The 29th COP of the Conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan. In this regard, recent years have been marked by a progressive and continuous integration of the Ocean into climate discussions, which has materialized in three complementary areas:

(i) science, through the development of specific research on the links between the Ocean and the climate, with key milestones such as the Special Report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. climate (IPCC) of 2019

(ii) national commitment, which translates into nationally determined contributions (NDCs) increasingly covering marine issues

(iii) intergovernmental cooperation, in particular through various work streams of the UNFCCC. Our Decryption and its accompanying Note identify ways to intensify action, strengthen the place of the Ocean in the climate regime, and exploit the potential for mitigation and adaptation of climate change through the environment marine environment and to strengthen synergies with the conventions relating to biodiversity and the Ocean.

UNOC3: an opportunity to address challenges insufficiently addressed by international cooperation

Then it will be the turn of UNOC3. France has already identified a number of themes which will be at the heart of the conference, including governance of the high seas, deep seabed mining and sustainable fisheries management. Beyond these obviously crucial questions, Iddri believes that this conference must be an opportunity to tackle challenges currently insufficiently addressed by intergovernmental cooperation.

This is the case, for example, of marine pollution from land-based activities. Currently, land-based sources are estimated to contribute to approximately 77% of marine pollution. Despite the large number of agreements and initiatives aimed at combating these sources of pollution, the marine environment continues to receive unacceptable levels of pollutants from land-based activities via subsurface, river and atmospheric vectors.

In 2025, the international community will commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Washington Declaration and the launch of the Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Pollution (GPA). This important milestone coincides with the organization of UNOC3.

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